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Synthesis of Epicyclic Gear Trains for Automotive Automatic Transmissions

In this article, we will discuss the synthesis of epicyclic gear trains for automotive automatic transmissions, their applications, and cost. After you have finished reading, you may want to do some research on the technology yourself. Here are some links to further reading on this topic. They also include an application in hybrid vehicle transmissions. Let’s look at the basic concepts of epicyclic gear trains. They are highly efficient and are a promising alternative to conventional gearing systems.

Synthesis of epicyclic gear trains for automotive automatic transmissions

The main purpose of automotive automatic transmissions is to maintain engine-drive wheel balance. The kinematic structure of epicyclic gear trains (EGTs) is derived from graph representations of these gear trains. The synthesis process is based on an algorithm that generates admissible epicyclic gear trains with up to ten links. This algorithm enables designers to design auto gear trains that have higher performance and better engine-drive wheel balance.
In this paper, we present a MATLAB optimization technique for determining the gear ratios of epicyclic transmission mechanisms. We also enumerate the number of teeth for all gears. Then, we estimate the overall velocity ratios of the obtained EGTs. Then, we analyze the feasibility of the proposed epicyclic gear trains for automotive automatic transmissions by comparing their structural characteristics.
A six-link epicyclic gear train is depicted in the following functional diagram. Each link is represented by a double-bicolor graph. The numbers on the graph represent the corresponding links. Each link has multiple joints. This makes it possible for a user to generate different configurations for each EGT. The numbers on the different graphs have different meanings, and the same applies to the double-bicolor figure.
In the next chapter of this article, we discuss the synthesis of epicyclic gear trains for automotive automatic transaxles. SAE International is an international organization of engineers and technical experts with core competencies in aerospace and automotive. Its charitable arm, the SAE Foundation, supports many programs and initiatives. These include the Collegiate Design Series and A World In Motion(r) and the SAE Foundation’s A World in Motion(r) award.


The epicyclic gear system is a type of planetary gear train. It can achieve a great speed reduction in a small space. In cars, epicyclic gear trains are often used for the automatic transmission. These gear trains are also useful in hoists and pulley blocks. They have many applications in both mechanical and electrical engineering. They can be used for high-speed transmission and require less space than other types of gear trains.
The advantages of an epicyclic gear train include its compact structure, low weight, and high power density. However, they are not without disadvantages. Gear losses in epicyclic gear trains are a result of friction between gear tooth surfaces, churning of lubricating oil, and the friction between shaft support bearings and sprockets. This loss of power is called latent power, and previous research has demonstrated that this loss is tremendous.
The epicyclic gear train is commonly used for high-speed transmissions, but it also has a small footprint and is suitable for a variety of applications. It is used as differential gears in speed frames, to drive bobbins, and for the Roper positive let-off in looms. In addition, it is easy to fabricate, making it an excellent choice for a variety of industrial settings.
Another example of an epicyclic gear train is the planetary gear train. It consists of two gears with a ring in the middle and the sun gear in the outer ring. Each gear is mounted so that its center rotates around the ring of the other gear. The planet gear and sun gear are designed so that their pitch circles do not slip and are in sync. The planet gear has a point on the pitch circle that traces the epicycloid curve.
This gear system also offers a lower MTTR than other types of planetary gears. The main disadvantage of these gear sets is the large number of bearings they need to run. Moreover, planetary gears are more maintenance-intensive than parallel shaft gears. This makes them more difficult to monitor and repair. The MTTR is also lower compared to parallel shaft gears. They can also be a little off on their axis, causing them to misalign or lose their efficiency.
Another example of an epicyclic gear train is the differential gear box of an automobile. These gears are used in wrist watches, lathe machines, and automotives to transmit power. In addition, they are used in many other applications, including in aircrafts. They are quiet and durable, making them an excellent choice for many applications. They are used in transmission, textile machines, and even aerospace. A pitch point is the path between two teeth in a gear set. The axial pitch of one gear can be increased by increasing its base circle.
An epicyclic gear is also known as an involute gear. The number of teeth in each gear determines its rate of rotation. A 24-tooth sun gear produces an N-tooth planet gear with a ratio of 3/2. A 24-tooth sun gear equals a -3/2 planet gear ratio. Consequently, the epicyclic gear system provides high torque for driving wheels. However, this gear train is not widely used in vehicles.


The cost of epicyclic gearing is lower when they are tooled rather than manufactured on a normal N/C milling machine. The epicyclic carriers should be manufactured in a casting and tooled using a single-purpose machine that has multiple cutters to cut the material simultaneously. This approach is widely used for industrial applications and is particularly useful in the automotive sector. The benefits of a well-made epicyclic gear transmission are numerous.
An example of this is the planetary arrangement where the planets orbit the sun while rotating on its shaft. The resulting speed of each gear depends on the number of teeth and the speed of the carrier. Epicyclic gears can be tricky to calculate relative speeds, as they must figure out the relative speed of the sun and the planet. The fixed sun is not at zero RPM at mesh, so the relative speed must be calculated.
In order to determine the mesh power transmission, epicyclic gears must be designed to be able to “float.” If the tangential load is too low, there will be less load sharing. An epicyclic gear must be able to allow “float.” It should also allow for some tangential load and pitch-line velocities. The higher these factors, the more efficient the gear set will be.
An epicyclic gear train consists of two or more spur gears placed circumferentially. These gears are arranged so that the planet gear rolls inside the pitch circle of the fixed outer gear ring. This curve is called a hypocycloid. An epicyclic gear train with a planet engaging a sun gear is called a planetary gear train. The sun gear is fixed, while the planet gear is driven.
An epicyclic gear train contains several meshes. Each gear has a different number of meshes, which translates into RPM. The epicyclic gear can increase the load application frequency by translating input torque into the meshes. The epicyclic gear train consists of 3 gears, the sun, planet, and ring. The sun gear is the center gear, while the planets orbit the sun. The ring gear has several teeth, which increases the gear speed.
Another type of epicyclic gear is the planetary gearbox. This gear box has multiple toothed wheels rotating around a central shaft. Its low-profile design makes it a popular choice for space-constrained applications. This gearbox type is used in automatic transmissions. In addition, it is used for many industrial uses involving electric gear motors. The type of gearbox you use will depend on the speed and torque of the input and output shafts.

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editor by Cx 2023-06-27

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Helical, Straight-Cut, and Spiral-Bevel Gears

If you are planning to use bevel gears in your machine, you need to understand the differences between Helical, Straight-cut, and Spiral bevel gears. This article will introduce you to these gears, as well as their applications. The article will also discuss the benefits and disadvantages of each type of bevel gear. Once you know the differences, you can choose the right gear for your machine. It is easy to learn about spiral bevel gears.

Spiral bevel gear

Spiral bevel gears play a critical role in the aeronautical transmission system. Their failure can cause devastating accidents. Therefore, accurate detection and fault analysis are necessary for maximizing gear system efficiency. This article will discuss the role of computer aided tooth contact analysis in fault detection and meshing pinion position errors. You can use this method to detect problems in spiral bevel gears. Further, you will learn about its application in other transmission systems.
Spiral bevel gears are designed to mesh the gear teeth more slowly and appropriately. Compared to straight bevel gears, spiral bevel gears are less expensive to manufacture with CNC machining. Spiral bevel gears have a wide range of applications and can even be used to reduce the size of drive shafts and bearings. There are many advantages to spiral bevel gears, but most of them are low-cost.
This type of bevel gear has three basic elements: the pinion-gear pair, the load machine, and the output shaft. Each of these is in torsion. Torsional stiffness accounts for the elasticity of the system. Spiral bevel gears are ideal for applications requiring tight backlash monitoring and high-speed operations. CZPT precision machining and adjustable locknuts reduce backlash and allow for precise adjustments. This reduces maintenance and maximizes drive lifespan.
Spiral bevel gears are useful for both high-speed and low-speed applications. High-speed applications require spiral bevel gears for maximum efficiency and speed. They are also ideal for high-speed and high torque, as they can reduce rpm without affecting the vehicle’s speed. They are also great for transferring power between two shafts. Spiral bevel gears are widely used in automotive gears, construction equipment, and a variety of industrial applications.

Hypoid bevel gear

The Hypoid bevel gear is similar to the spiral bevel gear but differs in the shape of the teeth and pinion. The smallest ratio would result in the lowest gear reduction. A Hypoid bevel gear is very durable and efficient. It can be used in confined spaces and weighs less than an equivalent cylindrical gear. It is also a popular choice for high-torque applications. The Hypoid bevel gear is a good choice for applications requiring a high level of speed and torque.
The Hypoid bevel gear has multiple teeth that mesh with each other at the same time. Because of this, the gear transmits torque with very little noise. This allows it to transfer a higher torque with less noise. However, it must be noted that a Hypoid bevel gear is usually more expensive than a spiral bevel gear. The cost of a Hypoid bevel gear is higher, but its benefits make it a popular choice for some applications.
A Hypoid bevel gear can be made of several types. They may differ in the number of teeth and their spiral angles. In general, the smaller hypoid gear has a larger pinion than its counterpart. This means that the hypoid gear is more efficient and stronger than its bevel cousin. It can even be nearly silent if it is well lubricated. Once you’ve made the decision to get a Hypoid bevel gear, be sure to read up on its benefits.
Another common application for a Hypoid bevel gear is in automobiles. These gears are commonly used in the differential in automobiles and trucks. The torque transfer characteristics of the Hypoid gear system make it an excellent choice for many applications. In addition to maximizing efficiency, Hypoid gears also provide smoothness and efficiency. While some people may argue that a spiral bevel gear set is better, this is not an ideal solution for most automobile assemblies.

Helical bevel gear

Compared to helical worm gears, helical bevel gears have a small, compact housing and are structurally optimized. They can be mounted in various ways and feature double chamber shaft seals. In addition, the diameter of the shaft and flange of a helical bevel gear is comparable to that of a worm gear. The gear box of a helical bevel gear unit can be as small as 1.6 inches, or as large as eight cubic feet.
The main characteristic of helical bevel gears is that the teeth on the driver gear are twisted to the left and the helical arc gears have a similar design. In addition to the backlash, the teeth of bevel gears are twisted in a clockwise and counterclockwise direction, depending on the number of helical bevels in the bevel. It is important to note that the tooth contact of a helical bevel gear will be reduced by about ten to twenty percent if there is no offset between the two gears.
In order to create a helical bevel gear, you need to first define the gear and shaft geometry. Once the geometry has been defined, you can proceed to add bosses and perforations. Then, specify the X-Y plane for both the gear and the shaft. Then, the cross section of the gear will be the basis for the solid created after revolution around the X-axis. This way, you can make sure that your gear will be compatible with the pinion.
The development of CNC machines and additive manufacturing processes has greatly simplified the manufacturing process for helical bevel gears. Today, it is possible to design an unlimited number of bevel gear geometry using high-tech machinery. By utilizing the kinematics of a CNC machine center, you can create an unlimited number of gears with the perfect geometry. In the process, you can make both helical bevel gears and spiral bevel gears.

Straight-cut bevel gear

A straight-cut bevel gear is the easiest to manufacture. The first method of manufacturing a straight bevel gear was to use a planer with an indexing head. Later, more efficient methods of manufacturing straight bevel gears were introduced, such as the Revacycle system and the Coniflex system. The latter method is used by CZPT. Here are some of the main benefits of using a straight-cut bevel gear.
A straight-cut bevel gear is defined by its teeth that intersect at the axis of the gear when extended. Straight-cut bevel gears are usually tapered in thickness, with the outer part being larger than the inner portion. Straight-cut bevel gears exhibit instantaneous lines of contact, and are best suited for low-speed, static-load applications. A common application for straight-cut bevel gears is in the differential systems of automobiles.
After being machined, straight-cut bevel gears undergo heat treatment. Case carburizing produces gears with surfaces of 60-63 Rc. Using this method, the pinion is 3 Rc harder than the gear to equalize wear. Flare hardening, flame hardening, and induction hardening methods are rarely used. Finish machining includes turning the outer and inner diameters and special machining processes.
The teeth of a straight-cut bevel gear experience impact and shock loading. Because the teeth of both gears come into contact abruptly, this leads to excessive noise and vibration. The latter limits the speed and power transmission capacity of the gear. On the other hand, a spiral-cut bevel gear experiences gradual but less-destructive loading. It can be used for high-speed applications, but it should be noted that a spiral-cut bevel gear is more complicated to manufacture.

Spur-cut bevel gear

CZPT stocks bevel gears in spiral and straight tooth configurations, in a range of ratios from 1.5 to five. They are also highly remachinable except for the teeth. Spiral bevel gears have a low helix angle and excellent precision properties. CZPT stock bevel gears are manufactured using state-of-the-art technologies and know-how. Compared with spur-cut gears, these have a longer life span.
To determine the strength and durability of a spur-cut bevel gear, you can calculate its MA (mechanical advantage), surface durability (SD), and tooth number (Nb). These values will vary depending on the design and application environment. You can consult the corresponding guides, white papers, and technical specifications to find the best gear for your needs. In addition, CZPT offers a Supplier Discovery Platform that allows you to discover more than 500,000 suppliers.
Another type of spur gear is the double helical gear. It has both left-hand and right-hand helical teeth. This design balances thrust forces and provides extra gear shear area. Helical gears, on the other hand, feature spiral-cut teeth. While both types of gears may generate significant noise and vibration, helical gears are more efficient for high-speed applications. Spur-cut bevel gears may also cause similar effects.
In addition to diametral pitch, the addendum and dedendum have other important properties. The dedendum is the depth of the teeth below the pitch circle. This diameter is the key to determining the center distance between two spur gears. The radius of each pitch circle is equal to the entire depth of the spur gear. Spur gears often use the addendum and dedendum angles to describe the teeth.

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Spiral Gears for Right-Angle Right-Hand Drives

Spiral gears are used in mechanical systems to transmit torque. The bevel gear is a particular type of spiral gear. It is made up of two gears that mesh with one another. Both gears are connected by a bearing. The two gears must be in mesh alignment so that the negative thrust will push them together. If axial play occurs in the bearing, the mesh will have no backlash. Moreover, the design of the spiral gear is based on geometrical tooth forms.

Equations for spiral gear

The theory of divergence requires that the pitch cone radii of the pinion and gear be skewed in different directions. This is done by increasing the slope of the convex surface of the gear’s tooth and decreasing the slope of the concave surface of the pinion’s tooth. The pinion is a ring-shaped wheel with a central bore and a plurality of transverse axes that are offset from the axis of the spiral teeth.
Spiral bevel gears have a helical tooth flank. The spiral is consistent with the cutter curve. The spiral angle b is equal to the pitch cone’s genatrix element. The mean spiral angle bm is the angle between the genatrix element and the tooth flank. The equations in Table 2 are specific for the Spread Blade and Single Side gears from Gleason.
The tooth flank equation of a logarithmic spiral bevel gear is derived using the formation mechanism of the tooth flanks. The tangential contact force and the normal pressure angle of the logarithmic spiral bevel gear were found to be about twenty degrees and 35 degrees respectively. These two types of motion equations were used to solve the problems that arise in determining the transmission stationary. While the theory of logarithmic spiral bevel gear meshing is still in its infancy, it does provide a good starting point for understanding how it works.
This geometry has many different solutions. However, the main two are defined by the root angle of the gear and pinion and the diameter of the spiral gear. The latter is a difficult one to constrain. A 3D sketch of a bevel gear tooth is used as a reference. The radii of the tooth space profile are defined by end point constraints placed on the bottom corners of the tooth space. Then, the radii of the gear tooth are determined by the angle.
The cone distance Am of a spiral gear is also known as the tooth geometry. The cone distance should correlate with the various sections of the cutter path. The cone distance range Am must be able to correlate with the pressure angle of the flanks. The base radii of a bevel gear need not be defined, but this geometry should be considered if the bevel gear does not have a hypoid offset. When developing the tooth geometry of a spiral bevel gear, the first step is to convert the terminology to pinion instead of gear.
The normal system is more convenient for manufacturing helical gears. In addition, the helical gears must be the same helix angle. The opposite hand helical gears must mesh with each other. Likewise, the profile-shifted screw gears need more complex meshing. This gear pair can be manufactured in a similar way to a spur gear. Further, the calculations for the meshing of helical gears are presented in Table 7-1.

Design of spiral bevel gears

A proposed design of spiral bevel gears utilizes a function-to-form mapping method to determine the tooth surface geometry. This solid model is then tested with a surface deviation method to determine whether it is accurate. Compared to other right-angle gear types, spiral bevel gears are more efficient and compact. CZPT Gear Company gears comply with AGMA standards. A higher quality spiral bevel gear set achieves 99% efficiency.
A geometric meshing pair based on geometric elements is proposed and analyzed for spiral bevel gears. This approach can provide high contact strength and is insensitive to shaft angle misalignment. Geometric elements of spiral bevel gears are modeled and discussed. Contact patterns are investigated, as well as the effect of misalignment on the load capacity. In addition, a prototype of the design is fabricated and rolling tests are conducted to verify its accuracy.
The three basic elements of a spiral bevel gear are the pinion-gear pair, the input and output shafts, and the auxiliary flank. The input and output shafts are in torsion, the pinion-gear pair is in torsional rigidity, and the system elasticity is small. These factors make spiral bevel gears ideal for meshing impact. To improve meshing impact, a mathematical model is developed using the tool parameters and initial machine settings.
In recent years, several advances in manufacturing technology have been made to produce high-performance spiral bevel gears. Researchers such as Ding et al. optimized the machine settings and cutter blade profiles to eliminate tooth edge contact, and the result was an accurate and large spiral bevel gear. In fact, this process is still used today for the manufacturing of spiral bevel gears. If you are interested in this technology, you should read on!
The design of spiral bevel gears is complex and intricate, requiring the skills of expert machinists. Spiral bevel gears are the state of the art for transferring power from one system to another. Although spiral bevel gears were once difficult to manufacture, they are now common and widely used in many applications. In fact, spiral bevel gears are the gold standard for right-angle power transfer.While conventional bevel gear machinery can be used to manufacture spiral bevel gears, it is very complex to produce double bevel gears. The double spiral bevel gearset is not machinable with traditional bevel gear machinery. Consequently, novel manufacturing methods have been developed. An additive manufacturing method was used to create a prototype for a double spiral bevel gearset, and the manufacture of a multi-axis CNC machine center will follow.
Spiral bevel gears are critical components of helicopters and aerospace power plants. Their durability, endurance, and meshing performance are crucial for safety. Many researchers have turned to spiral bevel gears to address these issues. One challenge is to reduce noise, improve the transmission efficiency, and increase their endurance. For this reason, spiral bevel gears can be smaller in diameter than straight bevel gears. If you are interested in spiral bevel gears, check out this article.

Limitations to geometrically obtained tooth forms

The geometrically obtained tooth forms of a spiral gear can be calculated from a nonlinear programming problem. The tooth approach Z is the linear displacement error along the contact normal. It can be calculated using the formula given in Eq. (23) with a few additional parameters. However, the result is not accurate for small loads because the signal-to-noise ratio of the strain signal is small.
Geometrically obtained tooth forms can lead to line and point contact tooth forms. However, they have their limits when the tooth bodies invade the geometrically obtained tooth form. This is called interference of tooth profiles. While this limit can be overcome by several other methods, the geometrically obtained tooth forms are limited by the mesh and strength of the teeth. They can only be used when the meshing of the gear is adequate and the relative motion is sufficient.
During the tooth profile measurement, the relative position between the gear and the LTS will constantly change. The sensor mounting surface should be parallel to the rotational axis. The actual orientation of the sensor may differ from this ideal. This may be due to geometrical tolerances of the gear shaft support and the platform. However, this effect is minimal and is not a serious problem. So, it is possible to obtain the geometrically obtained tooth forms of spiral gear without undergoing expensive experimental procedures.
The measurement process of geometrically obtained tooth forms of a spiral gear is based on an ideal involute profile generated from the optical measurements of one end of the gear. This profile is assumed to be almost perfect based on the general orientation of the LTS and the rotation axis. There are small deviations in the pitch and yaw angles. Lower and upper bounds are determined as – 10 and -10 degrees respectively.
The tooth forms of a spiral gear are derived from replacement spur toothing. However, the tooth shape of a spiral gear is still subject to various limitations. In addition to the tooth shape, the pitch diameter also affects the angular backlash. The values of these two parameters vary for each gear in a mesh. They are related by the transmission ratio. Once this is understood, it is possible to create a gear with a corresponding tooth shape.
As the length and transverse base pitch of a spiral gear are the same, the helix angle of each profile is equal. This is crucial for engagement. An imperfect base pitch results in an uneven load sharing between the gear teeth, which leads to higher than nominal loads in some teeth. This leads to amplitude modulated vibrations and noise. In addition, the boundary point of the root fillet and involute could be reduced or eliminate contact before the tip diameter.

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Handelbar Sets TW Alu alloy,Matte with reflective water-decals,bend Handlebar 31.eight times720,cnc Stem 60mm,Seat submit 31.six times400mm
Clamps TW Alu alloy,Single screw lock 34.9mm
Fork ROCKSHOX-REPTTN, Air,Distant,Thro-Axle EPTTt fifteen*110mm
EPT Sets Alu alloy CNC with sealed EPTTs forty two-52mm
Washer EPTT 3K, three times28.6 times10mm
Front EPTEPTTilleur None
Cassettes SRAM PG1210 EAGLE-12S,eleven-50T
BB Hollow BB92 times41 times29mm, pressed
Brake SRAM Degree EPT Pro floating Disc 160mm

EPTT Introduction

HangEPT Very first bicycle EPT EPTT, Ltd.,15years focused on the deveXiHu (West EPT) Dis.Hu (West EPT) Dis.ment of high-finish bicycles, spare components, driving products, creation and sales, EPT adhering to the quotfocus on quality, lead the style quot the core principle, is fully commited to the promotion of large good quality driving sports goods.
Our firm EPT presently covers mountain biking, street bikes, folding bicycles car class virtually a hundred, and synchronous operation bicycle frame, front fork, the group, wheel group, EPTT system, brake method, the include, pedal, a foot rack, total range of bicycle spare areas, and bicycle helmet, gloves, Jersey, bottle rack, lights, etc. of the category bicycle driving products.Exported country ,TEPTTd,Vietnam,Laos
Mongolia,Ukraine,Brazil,Dubai and many others.


Sample shipment: UPS/DHL/FEDEX/EMS/Your EPTTer
one) We generally ship out tiny cubage sample by quickest express such as UPS,DHL,FEDEX according to customers’ spot.
two) For unusual cubage like comprehensive bikes, sevral models of frames, we generally ship out samples by EMS
3) UnEPTTEXW cost, Cutomers selected their very own forwarEPTTto decide up cargos from possess warehouse.
four) UnEPTTCIF/FOB cost, We organize the shippment to customers’ named warehouse, incXiHu (West EPT) Dis.Hu (West EPT) Dis. the nearby EPTT custom clearance, neighborhood costs. Buyers is reponsable to hanlde the terminal regional expenses and Custom
five) UnEPTTDDU/DDP value, We organize the shippment to customers’ named terminal warehouse handle, incuding all the custom clearances of each sides and all port costs. Customers need to cooperate with our logistic forwarEPTTagent to complete the clearance and TARIFF payment.
1)EPT:EPTT package and plastic movie EPTT, carton EPTT outside the house.
two)Dimensions: 140cm*75cm*20cm.1 bike into per carton.
3)Container dimension:There are 300pcs into a 40HQ container.There are 135pcs into a 20HQ container.

Our Solutions
one)Our main items are:Highway bicycle/Mountain bicycle/Folding bike/Young children bicycle/EPTT bike and types of bike areas and and many others.
two)We have specialist R ampD crew, and we cooperate with a lot of manufacturers to layout and deveXiHu (West EPT) Dis.Hu (West EPT) Dis. bicycle and bike elements.
three)The main engineer of our R ampD Department was as soon as working in EPTized bicycle, factory for above 15 a long time. We have equivalent faXiHu (West EPT) Dis.Hu (West EPT) Dis.ty and technologies as EPTized.
four)We are in a position to make personal mould primarily based portions, 50pcs for bicycle and 100pcs for bicycle frames.so you can have EPT goods to differentiate from other people.
5)Customization: We offer you EPT services, this sort of as EPT layout, EPT painting, EPT EPTT, etc.

EPTT is our number 1 emphasis for the entire staff.The layout, EPT, assembly, QA amp EPTT are all accomplished in-home for efficiency and to stXiHu (West EPT) Dis.Hu (West EPT) Dis.rdized a high level of top quality handle.Wrranty is 1year unEPTTnormal using(not guy made harm).All of bikes will be tesed before transport.If you EPTd some not operating can demonstrate the photos to us or send out it back to us to restore or repace.

one. Q: Can I get some samples?
A: We are honored to supply you samples for good quality check, but will add extra EPT and transport EPT by courier.
2. Q: Can I mix various versions in one container?
A: Yes, different types can be combined in one container.
3. Q: What payment do you acknowledge?
A: In EPTT, our payment is thirty%T/T as deposit and 70%T/T after observing the duplicate of B/L.

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  in Bunia Democratic Republic of the Congo  sales   price   shop   near me   near me shop   factory   supplier Holographic Carbon Full Suspension Sram 12 Gear MTB Mountian Bike manufacturer   best   Cost   Custom   Cheap   wholesaler